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Correct use of rolling bearings and common faults

Correct use of rolling bearings and common faults

2020-04-22

There are dozens of bearings on the car are rolling bearings, large and small including almost all the common bearing types, rolling bearings accident and damage is also common.As rolling bearings are generally installed in the internal mechanism, so it is inconvenient to visually check, only according to the failure of the phenomenon to make a general judgment, and then disassembly inspection.The correct use of the rolling bearing is to reduce the bearing fault, prolong the bearing life of the reliable guarantee, its content includes the correct installation and reasonable lubrication.The following are the requirements for the use of rolling bearings and common faults, damage.Proper use of the rolling bearing 1. The dismounting bearing of the bearing should be cleaned before installation.During installation, use special tools to press the auxiliary flat and straight evenly, do not hit with hand hammer, especially do not hit directly on the bearing.When the bearing ring is loose with the seat hole, the seat hole should be repaired or the bearing should be replaced, do not use the bearing with the surface of the pitting or copper pad method used reluctantly.When the bearing is disassembled, the bearing shall be pulled out with the proper puller, and the bearing shall not be hit with chisel, hammer, etc.The common lubricants of rolling bearings are lubricating oil and grease.When the circumferential speed of the shaft is less than 4-5m/s, or the parts of the car that cannot be lubricated with lubricating oil, use grease to lubricate.The advantage of grease lubrication is that the sealing structure is simple, the grease is not easy to lose, the temperature is not affected, add a grease can be used for a long time.Use of grease to pay attention to two problems, one is to according to the requirements of the car manual, choose the appropriate brand of grease.For example, the automobile pump bearing is not suitable for the use of sodium base grease, because of its poor water resistance.The second is to add the grease in the bearing to the right amount, generally only fill the bearing cavity 1/2-l/3 is appropriate, too much is not only useless, but also increase the running resistance of the bearing, make it hot.Special attention should be paid to the automotive hub bearing, to advocate "empty hub lubrication", that is, only on the bearing coated with an appropriate amount of grease can, otherwise, not only waste and poor heat dissipation, but also make the grease heat overflow, may affect the braking performance.The advantage of lubricating oil is that the friction resistance is small, and can dissipate heat, mainly used for high speed and work environment temperature higher bearings.The brand number of lubricating oil should be selected according to the requirements of the car manual, and receive the timely replacement of car maintenance cycle, after the release of old oil to clean the organization and then add new oil, refueling should be added to the specified line, or with the refueling port level (according to the specific structure of the car, requirements), can not add.There are two common faults of rolling bearings: one is that the temperature at the bearing installation site is too high; the other is that there is noise in the bearing operation.1. If the bearing temperature is too high, a certain temperature is allowed in the part where the bearing is installed during the operation of the mechanism. When touching the housing of the mechanism by hand, it is normal that the bearing temperature is not too hot; otherwise, it indicates that the bearing temperature is too high.The bearing temperature is too high for the following reasons: the quality of lubricating oil does not meet the requirements or deterioration, lubricating oil viscosity is too high;Mechanism assembly is too tight (insufficient clearance);Bearing assembly is too tight;The bearing ring rotates on the shaft or in the housing;Overloading;Bearing cage or rolling body broken, etc.2. Bearing noise. The rolling bearing is allowed to make slight running noise during operation.The reason of rolling bearing noise is more complicated, one is the bearing inside, the outer ring with the surface wear.As a result of this wear, the bearing and the housing, the bearing and the shaft to destroy the relationship between the axis deviated from the correct position, in the shaft at high speed movement produced abnormal sound.When the bearing fatigue, its surface metal peeling, will also make the bearing radial clearance increased abnormal noise.In addition, the bearing lubrication is insufficient, the formation of dry friction, and bearing breakage will produce abnormal sound.After the bearing wear loose, the cage loose damage, will also produce abnormal noise.Iii. Damage to the rolling bearing during disassembly inspection of the rolling bearing, faults and damage causes of the bearing can be judged according to the damage of the bearing.1. The rolling body of the metal peeling bearing on the raceway surface and the raceway surface of the inner and outer rings are subjected to the action of periodic pulsating load, thus generating contact stress with periodic changes.When the number of stress cycles reaches a certain value, fatigue spalling occurs on the rolling body, inner and outer raceway surfaces.This fatigue can be exacerbated if the bearing load is too heavy.In addition, improper bearing installation, shaft bending, will also produce raceway peeling phenomenon.The fatigue spalling of the bearing raceway will reduce the running accuracy of the shaft and cause the vibration and noise of the mechanism.2. The raceway and rolling body of the burned bearing have a restitution color.The causes of burns are generally poor lubrication, poor quality of lubricating oil or deterioration, and bearing assembly too tight.3. Uneven pits appear on the contact surface of the raceway and roller of the plastic deformation bearing, indicating that the bearing produces plastic deformation.The reason is that under the action of large static load or impact load, the local stress on the working surface exceeds the yield limit of the material.4. The reasons for the cracks in the bearing seat ring may be that the bearing is too tight, the bearing foreign or inner ring is loose, the bearing inclusions are deformed, and the surface of the bearing is not well machined.5. The reasons for the broken cage are insufficient lubrication, broken rolling body, askew seat ring, etc.6. The metal of the cage may adhere to the roller due to the roller being stuck in the cage or insufficient lubrication.7. Serious raceway wear of the seat ring may be caused by foreign matter falling into the seat ring, insufficient lubricating oil or improper lubricating oil brand.

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