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How to choose bearings?

How to choose bearings?

2020-04-01

- axial load: parallel to the axis of rotation

- radial load: perpendicular to the axis


Each bearing is specially designed to support axial or radial loads. Some bearings can bear both loads: we call them combined loads. For example, if your bearings must bear combined loads, we recommend that you choose tapered roller bearings. If you need bearings that can withstand high radial loads, we recommend cylindrical roller bearings. On the other hand, if your bearings need to support a lighter load, perhaps ball bearings will be enough because they are usually cheaper.


The speed of rotation is another factor to consider. Some bearings can withstand higher speeds. Therefore, cylindrical roller bearings and needle roller bearings with cage have higher speed than bearings without cage. Sometimes, however, higher speeds come at the expense of payloads.


You also need to consider possible biases; Some bearings, such as double row ball bearings, are not suitable for this situation. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the bearing structure: embedded bearings and spherical bearings are prone to some alignment errors. We recommend that you use self-aligning bearings to automatically correct alignment defects due to shaft bending or installation errors.

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Similarly, in the choice of ideal bearing, working conditions are also very important. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the operating environment of bearings. Your bearings may be contaminated in a variety of ways. Some USES may cause noise interference, impact, and/or vibration. Therefore, your bearings must be able to withstand these shocks without causing inconvenience.


Another fundamental factor to consider is bearing life. A variety of factors, such as speed or reuse, can affect the bearing life.


Selecting the sealing system is the key to ensure the correct and lasting operation of the bearing. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the bearings are always well protected from any impurities and external factors such as dust, water, corrosive liquids or even used lubricants. The choice depends on the type of lubricant, environmental conditions (and therefore the type of contamination), fluid pressure, and speed.

To give you a good starting point, fluid pressure is the deciding factor in choosing a sealing system. Mechanical seals are ideal if the pressure is high enough (such as in the 2-3 bar range). Otherwise, the choice will be directly related to the type of lubricant, grease, or oil. For example, for grease lubrication, the most common solutions are: deflectors or washers, machining or narrow channels with grooves; In the case of oil lubrication, the sealing system is usually accompanied by grooves for oil recovery.


Use conditions can also affect your choice, especially when assembling bearings. Consideration must also be given to the rigidity and accuracy required for the bearings to be used. In some cases, a preload may be applied to the bearing assembly to increase its stiffness. In addition, preload will have a positive effect on bearing life and system noise. Note that if preload (radial or axial) is selected, software or experiments are needed to understand the rigidity of all parts.


In your selection criteria, you must also consider the ideal material for the bearing. Bearings can be made of metal, plastic or ceramic. The bearing material depends on its intended use. We recommend that you choose the bearing that is most resistant to compression. However, the materials used can affect the price of the bearings.



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